Monday, December 05, 2005

The Portrait of A Shaykh: Muhammad Abdul Halim Chishti


[This is somewhat of a rough draft, so any corrections or suggestions are welcome.]

He is the Shaykh, the Muhaddith, the Faqih, Muhammad Abdul Halim Nu'mani (his family name, which is put after Sayyiduna Nu'man bin Thabit also known as Abu Hanifah, radhiallahu'anhu, although I don't think that he is a descendent) Chishti.

He was born to a respectable and scholarly religious family in the Rajistani city of Jaipur before the partition of Pakistan and India in 1947.

His elder brother, Shaykh Mawlana 'Abdul-Rashid Nu'mani (Iftikhar Bhai's shaykh), rahimahullah, was probably the most renowned muhaddith of his age, rivalling the Syrian Shaykh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah, rahimahullah, in Scholarship (in fact the two read each other's works, were fond of each other and quoted each other often in writings). Shaykh Abdul Rashid could boast one of the shortest sanads to Shah Waliyullah of anyone in his age, as he was singled out by the Righteous Shaykh and Muhaddith Haydar Hasan (may Allah be pleased with him) in his youth for personal instruction, both in Hadith and Tasawwuf. He attained some of his first ijazas in both from him. He later in life took the suhbah of the Qutb al-Irshad Mawlana 'Abdul-Qadir Raipuri, where he met and became good friends with Mawlana Sayyid Abul-Hasan Ali Nadawi, rahimahullah, and the renowned murshid and scribe Shaykh Sayyid Nafis Shah al-Husayni (the shaykh of Tayyib Bhai and the living shaykh of the tariqah).

Shaykh Chishti, when he was young, set out in the footsteps of his elder brother to seek knowledge. However, unlike his elder brother who spent his time studying under the private tutelage of Shaykh Haydar Hasan, rahimahullahu ta'ala, Shaykh Chishti enrolled in Dar al-Ulum Deoband, where he became the student and disciple of the righteous Shaykh Husayn Ahmad Madani.

Shaykh Madani was not only the rector of the Dar al-Ulum at the time, and its principle shaykh al-hadith, but also a inheritor of the successorship of the Tariqah of Shaykh Abdul Rashid Gangohi, rahimahullah. He was the Shaykh of one the three major Khanqahs that claimed descent from the Shaykh Gangohi, who was one of the founders of Deoband.** ** Shaykh Rashid Ahmad Gangohi was the inheritor of the sanad of Shaykh Sayyid Ahmad Shahid, the great Sufi and Mujahid who lead an army of 'ulama against the British and Sikhs in the 1800's. In Shaykh Sayyid Ahmad Shahid unite the lines of the four tariqahs***.

Shaykh Chishti first took the tariqah from Shaykh Husayn Ahmad Madani while under his tutelage studying hadith. It is in following Shaykh Madani's example that he started to use the name Chishti, continuing a Sufi practice of giving preference to spiritual descent to that of blood. Upon completion of his study in Deoband, Shaykh Chishti inherited the sanad of Shaykh Madani in hadith. It is one of the highest and most sought-after sanads, with 'ulama coming from all over the world to ask Shaykh Chishti for its honor to this very day. This all was near the time of the partition.

After the partition, one by one, many of Shaykh Chishti's brothers came to Pakistan, principally to Karachi. Upon his sanad from Deoband and his certification as a "Munchi Fazil" (the Farsi equivalent of a college degree) in Pakistan, Shaykh Chishti was given an appointment in the Government of Pakistan's Department of Libraries, Historical Texts and Archives department, where he worked. He later pursued a Master's degree and PhD in Library science in which his doctoral thesis was on the massive libraries of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Later on in life he went to Nigeria where he worked as the director of libraries in a major university for about a decade. Upon his return to Pakistan, he returned to his madrasah roots and took up a post teaching hadith at the renowned Binnuri Town madrasah in Karachi, where he currently teaches and is the chair of the Hadith Sciences Department.

Through his brother, Shaykh Abdul Rashid, Shaykh Chishti kept the Suhbah of Mawlana 'Abdul Qadir Raipuri on his many visits to Pakistan, and also made the acquaintance of Shaykh Sayyid Nafis Shah al-Husayni, from whom he would later in life, take the Tariqah and complete his training in Tassawuf until he received the khilafah from him.

Throughout his years in his different occupation, he never gave up his thirst for knowledge. His family members report that he would often spend the entire night reading and could even be found on the day of Eid, studying his books. Nowadays, his eyesight is so weak that he is cautious not to read anything but that which is necessary; however he can be often found listening to one of his admiring students reading to him, those books which he does not have the strength to read with his own eyes.

In fact, he is marked by his extraordinary love and concern for his students, and their affection for him. They visit him often, even years after graduation, and they make him busy by frequently requesting him to write forwards for their own publications; a task that he takes seriously and executes with responsibility.

He leads the Dhuhr and 'Asr prayers at the Jami' Masjid of Gole Market in Nazimabad, Karachi, after his teaching responsibilities are discharged. I have often observed that his du'ahs are much longer than most, although in keeping with the sunnah, he does not make his du'ahs outloud or force the entire group to sit through them.

When I had the honor of traveling with him and spend Ramadan in the Khanqah of Shaykh Nafis Shah in Lahore, I noted that Shaykh Nafis would often have his khalifah make du'as after adhkar and in sittings, in which he was always particular to ask Allah's bounties for all people in all lands and in all states, naming them one by one, first and last, big and small, muslim and non-muslim, Arab and Ajam; when asked by people to remember them in his du'as he honestly responds that one need's not ask because he already does.

The mention of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and give him peace, Sahabah, Ulama' and Awliya, may Allah be pleased with them all, often cause his eyes to well up with tears and cause him to choke when speaking. A state passes over him suddenly at their mention which overwhelms him.

He is among the last of a generation of scholars who took their tutelage directly from the awliya' of Allah and come from a time in which the Muslims still kept their identity and din above all else. May Allah bless the rest of his days with barakah, make exalted his station amongst the believers and leave not one of us untouched by the light of his secret.

Written by Humza Chaudhry

***The tassawwuf of the sub-continent has its roots in four tariqahs principly: The Chishti Tariqah brought to the subcontinent by the Wali of Allah Shaykh Khaja Mu'in al-Din Chishti (Chisht is the village in Afghanistan where he was from) who came to the subcontinent after taking the ijaza from his Shaykh in Hijaz as well as several saintly figures in other parts of the Arabic-speaking Islamic world. That line was propagated through several well known saints such as Khaja Qutb al-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki, Shaykh Baba Farid al-Din Ganj-e-Shakar, Khaja Shaykh Nidham al-Din Awliya, and Shah Waliyullah al-Muhaddith al-Dehlawi to name a few (each of whom was renowned for their knowledge and adherence to the Shari'ah as well as illuminated knowledge of the path; in particular Shah Waliyullah carries what is probably the most widespread and often-transmitted sanad of hadith in the world).

The Qadiri Tariqah is probably the most widespread tariqah of tasawwuf in the world. Attributed to Shaykh Mawlana 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani, the famous Sayyid and Hanbali Faqih, its fame and awliya are known far and wide with its sanad being the wellspring for the Shadhilis, Khalwatis, Jerrahis and many other living tariqahs.

The Naqshabandi Tariqa, well known for its adherence to the sunnah and illumination through strict muhajadah, was brought to the subcontinent by Shaykh Abdul Baqi also known as Khaja Baqi Billah, and his disciple Shaykh Mujaddid Alf al-Thani Ahmad Sirhandi who is a descendant of Sayyiduna 'Umar and is commonly accepted to be the Mujaddid of the second Islamic millennium. The barakah of his resistance to the tyrannical and demented rule of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, who had him imprisoned, was manifested by his son, Jahangir releasing him and as a token of respect, taking his discipleship, as well as the conversion of countless people into Islam and the propagation of the Naqshabandi Tariqah throughout the lands of Islam, including to Turkey where it is now a fixed institution of Muslim life since Ottoman times, and Central Asia where it is the sole means by which most Muslims cling to the din.

The Suhrawardi tariqah is also well known and claimed influence on many prominent Islamic personalities such as Imam al-Ghazali.

** ** One of those khanqahs being the line of Shaykh ul-Hind which included Shaykh Madani and Maulana Zakariyyah, rahimamhumullah, the second being that of Thana Bhawan being that of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanawi and later on Maulana Taqi Uthmani's family, among others, and the third being that of Raipur, whose shaykhs were previously mentioned.

Wednesday, July 06, 2005

Thats What You Get...

"Down, down Pakistan," the crowd shouted;

before they were dispersed by police firing tear gas and water cannon...

Sunday, July 03, 2005

People Are Like Metals: The Best of Them in Jahiliyyah Are The Best of Them in Islam

The other day, me and a Mauritanian went to the corner store. He wanted to drink milk (that's what they always want to drink), and out of his Bedouin generosity, even bought me a juice (cause they know me as the one freak who can't drink milk). When he was paying, he noticed that one of the workers at the store made a quip at the other, which resulted in a small, sarcastic and funny exchange between them. He later commented that the slaves in his country also joked with each other like that often.

What struck me as much as what he said, was the way he said it, as if to imply that these poor Bengali workers were the slaves of this country. I quickly reminded him that they were free men, and asked him why he would equate them with slaves. However, despite my initial objection to his statement which was out of a gut reaction against what I feared was a racist comment, upon further reflection, I found some wisdom in it, that I had previously overlooked.

It is often complained that Mauritanians are some of the most racist people in the world, as indeed I would be strained to argue against; if you doubt this, try marrying the poorest Bedouin girl you can find, and see if even money can change the mind of her forbidding father. However, with the exception of a few truly ignorant and backwards people, most Mauritanians are not as racist as the seem to be. For example, in Mauritania you might see a man treating his servant like a slave. The master will be white (really closer to a dark red) and the slave will be black. It will set up the assumption in the mind of an American that they have a racist form of slavery which is akin to what was present in America over one hundred years ago.

However, after a while I started to notice, that there were actually black people, Arabs as well as senseless, and Nigerians, to name a few, who were treated with respect, or more specifically, just as normal peers by Mauritanians. Also, if one observes, one will find that the bedouins have a similar disdain and contempt for white (again red) Mauritanians who have settled in cities, learned French, and have traded their Bedouin traditions for a globalized consumeristic modernity.

It seems that the phenomenon that looks like racism is rather more akin to a sort of class sorting of society: those of higher virtue and merit in their unspoken Bedouin chivalric code are treated with more respect than those with lesser virtue; and although it usually follows that an honorable man has honorable sons, and that an ignoble man's children often take after their father, it is not a hard and fast rule. The system is complex and a person's placement in it requires long interaction and acquaintance, and is also subject to change.

It is so complex that even Mauritanian's will often be so simplistic as to not be able to follow it, conflating color or tribe with class and respectability. However before a black man or non-Arab gets too offended by such people, it is salient to note that people of such limited understanding and simplistic intellects are themselves usually the backbenchers of society, so their opinions are so insignificant that they are hardly worth mentioning, as are indeed the racist opinions of narrow-minded and petty people in all society. Lets face it, the common man wherever he be on this earth, is not the brightest or most enlightened one of the bunch. Rather than taking offence and getting upset by arguing with such people, it is better just to make du'ah for them and encourage them whenever you see the signs of human goodness in them; which indeed are as ubiquitous among normal people as is low intelligence.

So what is the importance of this in modern society? Why did I bring it up?

Well, I just wanted to make an interesting observation; despite that everyone now has their freedom from servitude, in fact, this particular Mauritanian's observation may not have been far from the mark. Its extrinsic seemingly racist character is easily drilled through to tap into its intrinsic observation that people really are of different qualities. The analogy to slavery only came easily to this individual because he happened to come from a society in which slavery (both de facto and in the remote desert, de jurie) still exists, whereas our bludgeoningly egalitarian societies often dupe people into overlooking the fact that certain characteristics ennoble some people over others.

This ties well into my previous thoughts regarding what I refer to as 'keeping it real,' or the ability of a person to act within the confines of a dignity that exhibits an internally satisfactory state, as opposed to one which displays an internal shallowness and insecurity.

I can logically extend that to apply it to many people in today's society, who, by materialistic standards may be 'ahead of the game,' but are in character no more than neo-slaves.

Shaykh Hamza once quoted some verses in Arabic; in translation they roughly are:

If you should hear of metal speak
And long long roads do become short
and the slave's fame shall people seek
then wait not long for the Mighty's court
I admit that it is a liberal translation and the verse is probably off, however, the import of in this verse is not those in bonded servitude, rather those whose respectability and low morals make them resemble the dregs of society. And isn't that who we have as our paradigms? As Americans, our president is a school flunky (he inherited it from an adulterer, who inherited it from a former chief of the CIA, who inherited it from an actor (although the inherent disgrace in being a flunky and a fornicator is apparent, at least to some, one may not be aware that in times gone past, being a spy was a dishonored position due to its excessive use of lying, treachery and invading the privacy of others, and being an actor was also an abased trade, because involved a trade which was altogether trivial... trite entertainment), and our celebrities are child-molesters, perverts, and drug addicts. The leaders of our business communities are usurers, perjurers, extortionists, liars, cheaters, and people who defraud one another, and the unadulterated and religious pursuit of money has been exalted.
That is just a picture of what today's 'slaves' are like in the USA.
Think of how sad the case is of those poor schlocks in the Muslim world who have abandoned the path of the Messenger of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and the path of his companions, and the saints, scholars, martyrs and righteous people of this Ummah.
A noble person, when he acquires wealth it is from a lawful and honorable source.
When he acquires wealth, he spends it in good ways and is restrained, neither wasting money nor showing it off excessively. A noble person is always sufficed by what Allah has given him.
A slave acquires money any way he can, due to his indigence for it.
When he spends it, it is in lavishness beyond his means, spent buying things he does not need, to impress people he does not like, and in the end it is never enough for him.
May Allah make us all from the ranks who he ennobles, and keep us on His straight path.
May Allah have mercy on the Ummah of our Liegelord Muhammad.
May the peace peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his folk, his companions, and all of those who follow in his path.

Saturday, July 02, 2005

Islam in American History: The Biography of a Wrongfully Enslaved Muslim

Taken from

The Autobiography of Umar ibn Sa`id ‘t-Turuudi:As Anthropological Evidence of the Rights for Self-Determination for Enslaved African Muslimstranslated byAbu Alfa MUHAMMAD SHAREEF bin Faridat the request of the present possessor of the manuscript Yushu`a Rabah

Umar ibn Sa`id ‘t-Turuudi
Following is a translation of the famous letter or autobiography of the enslaved Muslim Umar ibn Said. [1]
In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful, may Allah bless our master Muhammad.
Blessed is He in Whose hands is the kingdom, and He has power over all things. [1] Who created death and life is order to try you - which of you is best in deeds. And He is the Mighty the Forgiving. Who created seven heavens one above another. You do not see any inconsistency[52] in the creation of the Rahmaan. Return the sight, do you see any rupture. Then return the sight again and again, your sight will return back to you afraid[53] (rejected) and it is assembled (exhausted). And definitely We have beautified the lower heavens with lamps and made them missiles against the devils. And We have given[54] (prepared for) them the punishment of roasting. And for those who disbelieve in their Lord the punishment of Hell and an ill-fated destiny. When they will be folded[55] (thrown) therein, they will hear the grumbling of it[56] as it boils.[57] Almost bursting from the fury. Each time a group is thrown therein, its custodian[58] says to them, ‘Did not a warner come to you?’. They will say: ‘Of course! A warner came to us and we rejected him (and)[59] said: ‘Allah has not revealed anything. You are merely in enormous error’.’ They will say: ‘If we had only listened or used our reason we would not be among the punishment (companions) of the burning fire.[60] Then they will acknowledge their sins, but remote will be the companions of the burning fire.[61] Verily those who fear[62] their Lord in the unseen[63], for them will be forgiveness and a tremendous rebuke (reward).[64] And conceal your words or say them out loud[65], truly He knows the contents of the breast. Does He who creates not know?! He is the Subtle[66] the Aware. He it is who made (the earth)[67] smooth for you, so go through[68] its spacious sides therein and consume from His sustenance. To Him is the final return.[69] Are you so safe from He in the heaven that He should not make the earth swallow you up? Suddenly it is[70] in confusion. Are you so safe from He in[71] the heaven that He should not send down upon you stones. Then you will know how was My warning. Those before them denied, then how was My disapproval. Have they not seen the birds above them expanding and advancing (contracting)[72]. Nothing upholds them except the Rahman. Truly He sees everything. (Who is it that will be supports for you who will assist you except the Rahman. Truly the disbelievers are only in deception).[73] Who is it that[74] will provide for you if He were to withhold your sustenance. Rather! They continue[75] in their ridicule and distaste. Is he who goes prone upon his face better guided or he who[76] walks upright upon a straight path? Say: He is the One who originated you[77] and made for you hearing, sight and perception. Little thanks do you give. Say: He it is who scattered you (multiplied you)[78] in the earth and to Him you will be gathered. And they say: When will this[79] threat come, if you are truthful? Say: The[80] knowledge of this is only with Allah and[81] I am only a plain warner. But when they will see it approaching, the faces of those who disbelieve will be in sorrow[82]. It will be said: This is what you used to call for. (Say: do you see if your water were to dwindle, who is it then that will)[83] Say: Have you considered if Allah were to destroy me and those with me, or if He were to show us mercy - yet who will back up (protect)[84] the disbelievers from a severe punishment? (Say: He is the Rahman. We believe in Him and upon Him do we rely. You will soon know who is truly in clear error.)[85]. Say: do you see if your water were to dwindle, who are it then that will bring you flowing water?[86]
O shaykh Hunter, I am unable to write (about) my life. I have forgotten most of my language as well as the language of Arabic. [1] O my brothers, do not blame me.[87] All praises are due to Allah with much praises. He provides from blessings to those who increase in good.[88]
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful. All praises are due to Allah the Possessor of good, generosity, bounty, adoration and munificence from before endless time. All praises are due to Allah who created creation for His worship, even the provision of their actions and words.
It is from Umar to shaykh Hunter. You asked me to write down my life. Truly I am unable to write (about) my life. For I have forgotten much of my language as well as the language of Arabic. I have studied only a little grammar as well as a little linguistics. Therefore O brothers, I ask you by Allah, do not blame me. My eyes are weak as well as my body.
My name is Umar ibn Said. [1] The place of my birth was Futa Toro[89] (which lay) between the two rivers[90]. I sought knowledge in Bundu[91] and Futa[92] with my shaykh, whose name was Muhammad Said, my brother, shaykh Sulayman Kabah[93], and shaykh Jibril Abdaal. I was entrenched in seeking knowledge for twenty-five years.[94] I came back to my region and after six years a large army came to our land.[95] They killed many people and seized me bringing me to the great ocean.[96] There they sold me and I was sold into the hands of the Christians. They brought me in the enormous ship on the great ocean.[97] We sailed on the great ocean for a month and a half. We came to a place named Charleston in the language of the Christians.[98] There I was sold and bought by a diminutive, weak and wicked man, named Johnson, a serious disbeliever who had no fear of Allah.
I am a small man and unable to do strenuous work, so I fled from the hands of Johnson. Until (when) the month (arrived) I came to a place called Fayadil. [1] There I saw houses.[99] During the month I entered into one of the houses in order to make the salaat. A young boy riding a horse saw me and he went to his father’s place and informed him, saying: ‘I saw a Black man in the house’. A man by the name of Hunda[100] and another man riding a horse came with many hounds. They seized me and brought me with them for twelve miles to a place called Fayadil. They placed me in a large building which they called jail, in the language of the Christians. They kept me there for sixteen days and nights.[101] On Friday they opened the cells of the huge building and brought me to a place where I saw many men, all whom were Christians. Some of them called out to me, ‘What is your name? Is it Umar or Sa`id?” I did not understand their Christian language. I saw a man called Bob Mumford who spoke to me and led me out of the jail.[102] I was extremely pleased to go with them to their place. I was situated in the place of Mumford for four nights and days. And then a man named Jim Owen, son-n-law of Mumford, having married his daughter Bansah (Betsey?) Mumford.[103] He asked me if I was willing to go to a place called Balden. I said, “Yes.” I was pleased to go with them. I have been situated in the place of Jim Owen until now.
Before I came into the hand of General Owen a man by the name of Mitchell came to buy me. He asked me if I were willing to go to the place of Charleston. I said, ‘No, no, no, no, no, no, no, I am not going to the place of Charleston. I will stay in the hand of Jim Owen.”[1]
O people of North Carolina, O people of South Carolina, O people of America all of you: have you among you two good men named Jim Owen with John Owen? [1] These two men are good men. What food they ate, I ate. In what they clothe themselves, they clothe me.[104] Jim along with (my brothers?)[105] recite to me the Injeel of Allah , our Lord, Creator, King; who regulates all our circumstances, our health and wealth, and who bestows His bounties willingly, without constraint according to His power. Open my heart to the way of guidance, to the way of Yusu`a the Messiah, to the tremendous light.[106]
Before I came to the lands of the Christians, my religion was the religion of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I used to walk to the mosque before the appearance of dawn. I used to wash my face, (wipe) my head and (wash) my hands and feet. I prayed at the time of dhuhr. I prayed the time of asr. I prayed the time of maghrib. I prayed the time of `isha. [1] I gave the zakat every year: gold; silver; seeds; cattle; sheep; goats; rice; wheat and barley. I gave the zakat on all that. I went to the jihad every year against the disbelievers. I went to Mecca and Medina, as all did who were able. My father had six sons and five daughters. Three of these sons and one of the daughters were from my mother. When I left my country I was thirty-seven years old. I have stayed in the country of the Christians for twenty-four years[107].
In the year 1831 of Yusu`a the Messiah.[1]
O people of North Carolina, O people of South Carolina, O all you people of America. The first son of Jim Owen is called Thomas, and his sister is called Masa Jayne (Martha Jane?). [1] These are people are very good people. Tom Owen and Neil Owen have two sons and one daughter. The name of the first son is Jim and the second is John. The daughters’ name is Mulcy (Mercy?).[108] Mister Jim Owen (and his wife)[109] had two sons and five daughters. The first was Tom, then John, Maasa (Martha?),[110] Miriam, Sophia, Maakit (Margaret)[111] and Eliza. These people are very good people.
The wife of John Owen is called Lucy. She is an upright wife. She had three and two children. Three of them died and two are still living.
O you Americans, you people of North Carolina - Are there among you!? Are there among you!? Are there among you!? Are there among you!? - good people who fear Allah much?![1]
Verily I, Umar, love to read the book of the Mighty Qur’an.
General Jim Owen and his wife used to read the Injeel. They read it to me very much. Allah , our Lord, Creator, King; who regulates all our circumstances, our health and wealth, and who bestows His bounties willingly, without constraint according to His power. Open my heart to the way of guidance. All praises are due to Allah the Lord of the worlds, with abundant praises. He is plenteous in blessings and abundant in goodness.[1]
For reason that the law by Musa one must act. Further, the blessing and the truth were by Yusu`a the Messiah.
The first (foremost?) is Muhammad: [1] that he prayed saying “All praises are due to Allah the Lord of the worlds. The Beneficent the Merciful. King of the Day of Judgment. It is You that we worship and You alone that we seek for assistance. Guide us to the straight path. The path of those upon whom You have blessed. Not among those who have earned anger nor who have gone astray. Amen.”[1]
And now the words of our lord[1] Yusu`a the Messiah[112]:
“Our father who are in heaven Holy be Your name. Your kingdom come. You will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us our daily bread. Forgive us as we have forgiven those who have done us harm. Do not enter us into temptations. But redeem us from evils. To You belong the Kingdom and the power, the majesty forever. Amen.”[1]
Truly my residing in my country was by reason of great detriment. [1] The disbelievers seized me unjustly and sold me to the Christians, who purchased me. We sailed a month and a half on the great ocean to the place called Charleston in the language of the Christians. I fell into the hands of a small, weak and wicked man, who did not fear Allah at all. He could neither read nor did he pray. I was afraid to remain with a sinful man who had so many sins. Thus, I fled for a month, when Allah, our Lord, lead me into the hands of a good man, who feared Allah and who loved to do good. His name was General Jim Owen along with his brother whose name was Colonel John Owen. These were two good men. I am presently residing in Bladen County.[113]
I am established in the hands of Jim Owen. He does not beat nor scold. I neither go hungry nor naked, and I have no hard work to do. I am not able to do hard work for I am a small man and feeble. During the last twenty years I have not seen any harm at the hands of Jim Owen.